Joint & Bone Care Hospital

CODE (Center of Obesity & Endocrinology) UNIT


Diabetes is a chronic progressive disorder that affects millions of Indians. What is worrying is that most statistics project that this “millions” are likely to grow into several hundreds of millions if the onslaught of the disease is not checked and soon. This in turn may lead to severe consequences as the complications of diabetes are both life-threatening and extremely morbid. Therefore the need to the device and discuss ways to prevent diabetes.

The two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 – in the Indian context, the type 2 variety is of paramount importance as this is by far the commoner variety.

The main risk factor for type 2 diabetes is CENTRAL OBESITY. Deposition and collection of fat around the abdomen and this fat forming a coating of sorts around the main abdominal organs like the liver and pancreas is called central obesity and this causes diabetes.


  • Stick to a healthy diet as prescribed
    • Brisk walking is an ideal exercise for diabetics – make sure when you are walking your speed should be such that you feel slightly breathless but not very breathless.
    • Start slow and then work up speed
    • From 5-10 minutes work up to 30-45 minutes at least 5 days of the week
    • Wear comfortable shoes for walking.
    • Drink plenty of fluids during/after exercise
    • Carry some sugar/glucose/sweets with you when you are exercising in case you become hypoglycaemic. It is best to have a piece of fruit 15 minutes prior to starting exercise.

Other suitable exercises for diabetes include jogging, cycling etc.

  • Regularly MONITORyour blood glucose levels
    • One should monitor one’s own blood glucose regularly.
    • If one has access to a glucometer one should check one’s blood sugars – fasting, after lunch and pre-dinner or if one feels unwell in any way and as prescribed by the physician. Once a week is a minimum that one should try to measure blood glucose levels at home. Glucometer readings are quite accurate.
    • Otherwise, have laboratory measurements of blood glucose (on medicines) once every fortnight.



Patients with diabetes should take good care of their feet, as diabetics are prone to developing nasty foot ulcers, which might need an amputation. This is because of three reasons:

  • Neuropathy:Loss of sensation, therefore unable to realize and protect oneself from injury to the foot.
  • Peripheral vascular disease:Poor blood flow impairing healing, leading to gangrene.
  • Infections:diabetics are prone to infections and small cuts and scratches on the foot may develop into life/limb-threatening ulcers easily.

Additionally, diabetics tend to have dry feet and have a tendency to form corns, hard skin and foot deformities, which worsen the risk for major foot disease.

Once ulcers or gangrene have set in treatment becomes difficult, lengthy, costly and only partially successful. So the best option is to PREVENT foot problems in diabetes by following the advised DOs and DON’Ts!!!!



  • Keep blood sugar under strict control
  • Keep feet clean by washing daily in soap and water and then drying carefully with a dry towel particularly between the toes
  • After washing and drying feet, apply a moisturizer like Liquid petroleum jelly, all over the feet except between the toes
  • LOOK at your feet every day, if necessary use a mirror. Ensure there are no cuts scratches or blisters – if there are any signs of injury consult your doctor immediately.
  • Wear comfortable shoes with cotton seamless socks while out and slippers all the time at home. Make sure your shoes don’t give you blisters and always check the insides of your shoes for nails/pebbles before wearing them every day.
  • Trim your nails straight across and file with a nail file.


  • Do not smoke
  • No home surgery – Do not cut dry or hard skin or corns with blades etc
  • Do not use chemicals, corn caps or strong antiseptics on your feet
  • Do not use adhesive tape on your feet
  • Do not soak your feet in hot water or keep your feet near hot objects/appliances.
  • Left untreated this may cause coma, convulsions and even death



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